C6 – Major Milestone for Hospital Medicine

What is “C6”?

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) assigned a new specialty code, “C6”, for when hospitalists enroll or update enrollment. This is a monumental step for hospital medicine as hospitalists can now differentiate from other providers.


C6 went into effect on April 1, 2017 and was implemented on April 3, 2017.
The place to designate the C6 specialty code, depending on if the provider is new to Medicare enrollment or is an existing provider:

  • Electronically: Utilizing the PECOS system, provider credentialing offices can update existing specialty codes to C6 or enroll.

In addition to its obvious use for enrollment, the C6 code can be used as a valid specialty for the following edits:

  • Ordering/certifying Part B clinical laboratory and imaging, durable medical equipment (DME), and Part A home health agency (HHA) claims
  • Critical Access Hospital (CAH) Method II Attending and Rendering claims
Attending, operating, or other physician or non-physician practitioner listed on CAH claims.

SHM can say with confidence that this effort was driven entirely by us. A formal application needed to be filed in order for a code to even be considered. After determining that the benefits associated with this code far outweighed the costs and then receiving the support of our board of directors, SHM’s staff and PPC members collaborated to draft a brief and made the argument for the addition of a hospitalist billing code based on the individual elements CMS requires for consideration.

After submitting the application, SHM continuously followed up with and pressured CMS through various channels and utilized our grassroots network of hospitalists on the Hill to put this code on legislators’ radars—the result was pressure getting applied from interested members of Congress as well. If it were not for the persistent advocacy efforts of SHM and its members over the past several years, this code would not have even been considered, let alone approved.

This is a significant development—to our knowledge, this is the first medical specialty to be granted a code without also having a board certification. We are thrilled that what we have been advocating for on behalf of our members is now a reality.

The following is from Ron Greeno, MD, MHM, chief strategy officer for IPC Healthcare and chair of SHM’s Public Policy Committee (PPC): As we transition from fee-for-service to quality-based payment models, using this code will become critical to ensure hospitalists are reimbursed and evaluated fairly. Under the current code structure, hospitalists are missing opportunities to be rewarded and may be penalized unnecessarily because they are required to identify with internal medicine, family medicine, or another specialty that most closely resembles their daily practice. What current measures do not account for is that hospitalists’ patients are inherently more complex than those seen by practitioners in these other—most often outpatient—specialties. We as hospitalists face unique challenges and work with patients from all demographics, often with severe illnesses, making it nearly impossible to rely on benchmarks used for these other specialties.

There are a few prime examples of this that illustrate the need for the new code. Under the current system, some quality-based patient satisfaction measures under MACRA, on which hospitalists are being evaluated, pertain to the outpatient setting, including waiting room quality and office staff–irrelevant measurements for hospitalists. Hospitalists are also often incorrectly penalized under meaningful use due to complications brought on by observation status and its classification as an outpatient stay. This can cause both quality and cost measures to be extremely flawed and can misrepresent the performance and cost of hospitalists and hospital medicine groups. In the current billing structure, there is no way to accurately identify hospitalists and enable a definite fix to these problems.

To get what we want (fair measurement using relevant metrics), we must be able to identify as a separate group, and fortunately, now we can. There will be benefits we don’t even know about yet. We have to wait and see how healthcare policy continues to evolve and change moving forward. What we do know is that having this code will help us shape MACRA and future healthcare policy so that it works better for hospitalists as the specialty continues to grow in scope and impact.

Some hospitalists might be nervous about the change after having billed a certain way for so long. While there is no absolute requirement for hospitalists to use the new code, the bottom line is that if hospitalists do not adopt the new code, they risk not receiving fair evaluations. Using this code should provide hospitalists with greater insight into their own performance—the data will be much more accurate and meaningful. This will allow hospitalists to hone in on areas needing improvement and provide them with more confidence that they are being compared using accurate benchmarks.



“If you are a provider, hospital or hospitalist administrator, this new specialty designation is important. This major milestone for hospital medicine demonstrates the continued growth and impact of the specialty. Ensure your self-election in the PECOS system reflects “C6,” your specialty as a hospitalist and your commitment to the hospital medicine movement.” - Dea Robinson, FACMPE